Pakistan’s hard currency reserves have grown rapidly. Improved fiscal management, greater transparency and other governance reforms have led to upgrades in Pakistan’s credit rating. Together with lower global interest rates, these factors have enabled Pakistan to prepay, refinance and reschedule its debts to its advantage. Despite the country’s current account surplus and increased exports in recent years, Pakistan still has a large merchandise-trade deficit. The budget deficit in fiscal year 1996–97 was 6.4% of GDP. The budget deficit in fiscal year 2003–04 is expected to be around 4% of GDP.
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Employment @ UN Work with the United Nations to make Pakistan a better place. The United Nations (UN) works to help the countries of the world cooperate in matters ranging from law and security to social progress and human rights. In Pakistan, 19 organisations affiliated with the UN work together for the most vulnerable people of Pakistan, supporting development and humanitarian assistance under the umbrella of the One UN – Delivering as One. At UN Pakistan, you will have a unique opportunity to participate in decisions and actions that affect the lives of millions of Pakistanis. We encourage all qualified men and women to apply for vacancies in UN Pakistan. We value efficiency, competence and integrity, and hire staff with suitable qualifications without distinction as to race, gender, religion or any other discriminating factor. We strongly encourage women to apply.
The defence industry of Pakistan, under the Ministry of Defence Production, was created in September 1951 to promote and coordinate the patchwork of military production facilities that have developed since independence.It is currently actively participating in many joint production projects such as Al Khalid 2, advance trainer aircraft, combat aircraft, navy ships and submarines. Pakistan is manufacturing and selling weapons to over 40 countries, bringing in $20 million annually.The country’s arms imports increased by 119 per cent between the 2004–2008 and 2009–13, with China providing 54pc and the USA 27pc of Pakistan’s imports.
Overall female participation in labour and professions is minimal, and it needs no reminder or emphasis that this factor will continue to be a drag on Pakistan’s economic growth and development for as long as the present conditions of gender disparity continue. After all, women are half the population of the country, and we cannot continue to ignore this fact, which is not much different from denial of it.
Within the region, IBM currently has groundbreaking initiatives in cloud computing, analytics, mobile, security, as well as nanotechnology, eGovernment, healthcare and many more, collaborating with leading educational institutes and governments. IBM supports hundreds of clients to drive transformation through technology, contributes to regional research & development programs and has an active Corporate Service Corps (CSC) program.
The literature about economic and social impacts of Bt cotton adoption on farm households in developing countries is growing. Yet, there is still uncertainty about wider implications of this technology for rural development, including effects for landless rural laborers. Bt-related yield advantages may lead to intensified production and higher demand for labor. Building on farm survey data collected in Pakistan and using double-hurdle regression models, we analyze employment effects of Bt cotton adoption. Model estimates show that Bt adoption has increased the demand for hired labor by 55%. Manual harvesting, which is common in Pakistan, is a labor-intensive activity primarily carried out by female laborers. Accordingly, gender disaggregation shows that the employment-generating effects are particularly strong for women, who often belong to the most disadvantaged groups of rural societies. These results suggest that Bt technology can contribute to additional employment income for the poor and to more equitable rural development.
We encourage all qualified men and women to apply for vacancies in UN Pakistan. We value efficiency, competence and integrity, and hire staff with suitable qualifications without distinction as to race, gender, religion or any other discriminating factor.
The economy of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is suffering with high inflation rates well above 26%. Over 1,081 patent applications were filed by non-resident Pakistanis in 2004 revealing a new-found confidence. Agriculture accounted for about 53% of GDP in 1947. While per-capita agricultural output has grown since then, it has been outpaced by the growth of the non-agricultural sectors, and the share of agriculture has dropped to roughly one-fifth of Pakistan’s economy. In recent years, the country has seen rapid growth in industries (such as apparel, textiles, and cement) and services (such as telecommunications, transportation, advertising, and finance).
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The case law on discrimination is rather complicated in this regard. On the one hand, the court is willing to give the employer the prerogative to decide as they like whether to retain an employee or retire them at the age of superannuation, ‘in the absence of any statute, rule or agreement, it was a latitude or liberty’,13 as was the case in Abdul Majeed vs. Dandot Cement,14where the employer was clearly going through a financial crisis and had negotiated contracts after the age of superannuation with some, but not all of the employees. It was held that in the light of financial crises of the employer establishment, the settlement was rescinded and as a consequence beyond 60 years, no extension would be allowed for the petitioners. It was justified that when the services of some of the employees were extended, the said agreement had ceased, and there was no agreement in the field, so the extension in the services of some employees could not be termed as DISCRIMINATION; rather it was the discretion of the employer to extend the services of some of the employees on attaining the age of superannuation. In the circumstances, the aggrieved employees therefore could not rely upon and seek the benefits of the old Agreement between employees and the employer. In another recent case, Government of Punjab vs. Abdul Sattar Hans,15 a case involving Arts. 3 & 25 of the Constitution, it was argued that Federal Government employees and Provincial Government employees should receive the same emoluments and perquisites if they were performing the same type of duties; that if two different pay scales were given to Federal Government employees and Provincial Government employees, it could amount to extracting LABOUR and exploitation under Art. 3 of the Constitution, and that although the Provincial Government would have to bear an extra financial burden, service structure and financial constraints could not stand in the way of the Constitution. However, the court struck down this claim, saying that different employers with different financial and other resources employed both sets of employees, and this did not amount to discrimination. In a 2013 case, the court took a more lenient view against an individual state employee who claimed that no impartial enquiry was held against him to prove an allegation of accepting illegal gratification, and allowed the appeal on the basis that the employee had been discriminated against, as another employee against whom a similar allegation of tampering with a meter was levelled, was removed from service, but subsequently reinstated with all benefits. It was argued that the facts of said other employee’s case and the employee were identical (MEPCON vs. Arshad Aziz16), and it was discrimination to give the appellant a lesser legal right of appeal. Arts. 25 & 27 of the Constitution are an oft-pleaded provision of the constitution in discrimination cases and is often used when pay scales are discriminatory or unfair (see 2013 PLC 262). Equal pay is governed by s15 of the West Pakistan Minimum Wage Rules, 1962, which requires employers to give regard to the principle of equal remuneration for work of equal value between men and women when it comes to fixing wages. However, there is no specific law in the country to deal with equal remuneration. The Pakistan Regulations on Fair Treatment involve the Constitution of Pakistan, 1973 (as amended in 2012), the West Pakistan Minimum Wage Rules, 1962, and the Protection Against Harassment of Women at Workplace Act, 2010.
Tariffs have been reduced to an average rate of 16%, with a maximum of 25% (except for the car industry). The privatization process, which started in the early 1990s, has gained momentum, with most of the banking system privately owned, and the oil sector targeted to be the next big privatization operation.
Section 18. Power to make Rules. The appropriate Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette and subject to the condition of previous publication, make rules for carrying into effect the provisions of this Act.
Women continued to be forced to remain out of the job market, or were pushed into low-paid or low-status jobs where their abilities and productive potentials remain untapped. Most of those employed are in the unorganised sector, where low productivity, lower income stability and greater job insecurity are the chief problems women suffer day in and day out.
Currently about 52 minerals are under exploitation although on small scale. The major production is of coal, rock salt and other industrial and construction minerals. The current contribution of the mineral sector to the GDP is about 0.5% and likely to increase considerably on the development and commercial exploitation of Saindak & Reco Diq copper and gold deposits (world’s largest gold mine), Duddar zinc lead, Thar coal and gemstone deposits.
In this case, while seeking to invoke Ss. 54 & 57— of the Contract Act (IX of 1872), S.27 and the Civil Procedure Code (V of 1908), O.XXXIX, Rr.1 & 2 in order to get an interim injunction for the grant of such a restrictive covenant on the ground that the defendant had executed an agreement undertaking not to work for a period of two years with any competitor of the plaintiff once he left the job, the plea raised by the plaintiff was that during employment with the plaintiff, the defendant had acquired confidential information. The court struck down the plea, stating that the restrictive covenant between the parties was too vague, generalised and hence void. The so-called Agreement did not specify what particular, specialised information had been divulged to the defendant, which he would be prevented to use directly or indirectly in employment with another employer. As the plaintiff had failed to particularise what confidential information was acquired by the defendant or to disclose what particular trade secret or secret formula or information was specially acquired by the defendant, other than in his normal course of employment, the restrictive covenant could not be enforced.
The major factors contributing to poor employment trends for females in Pakistan include low literacy rates, and social and cultural taboos and norms that impede their active participation in national economic activity. The situation calls for immediate action from both organised and unorganised sectors of employment. The government’s taking the lead by reviewing its labour policies and by offering incentives to women who due to numerous factors remain out of jobs can address the problem and set an example for others. For an effective workforce, the capacity of the women workers should be enhanced through creation of more vocational training institutions and through on-the-job trainings. Since it is the key to the success and economic growth of a country, education must be made compulsory and free at least at the primary level for all girls.
Section 10. Disputes as to Age. If any question arises between an Inspector and an occupier as to the age of any child who is employed or is permitted to work by him in an establishment, the question shall, in the absence of a certificate as to the age of such child granted by the prescribed medical authority, be referred by the Inspector for decision to the prescribed medical authority.
Your appointment letter (employment contract) must state the nature of your employment (permanent or temporary, nature of duties i.e. job description, terms and conditions of service etc.
Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development was established on 7th June, 2013 through merger of erstwhile Ministry of Human Resource Development and Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis. Under the Rules of Business 1973, the Ministry makes policies for employment promotion abroad; takes measures for the welfare of Pakistani Emigrants and their dependents in Pakistan; and coordinates with provincial governments to align national labour laws with Pakistan’s international obligations on labour standards.
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2. Tickets.– Every workman employed in an industrial establishment shall be given a permanent ticket unless he is a probationer, a badli, a temporary workman or an apprentice.
[14-A. Special provision for construction workers.– Where any workman is retrenched or discharged by a contractor or any employer engaged in the construction industry due to completion, cessation or discontinuance of work, he shall be given preference for employment in any other similar work undertaken by the contractor or employer within a period of one year from the date of such retrenchment or discharge:
3. Enforcement of Standing Orders.– In every industrial or commercial establishment, conditions of the employment of workmen and other incidental matters shall, subject to the other provisions of this Ordinance, be regulated in accordance with the Standing Orders.
In addition to the high rate of female unemployment and the low job opportunities in major occupational groups, there is the factor of lower wages for female employees. Low female representation in professional jobs and senior positions is a result of social injustice, socio-economic conditions, low educational levels and persistent discrimination against women in our society. In 2001-02 women managers and officials at senior levels were only 1.9 percent, of the total 11.6 percent in the group. Of the total 11.5 percent, the number of women in the same group declined to 1.6 percent by 2012-13.
AbstractThe literature about economic and social impacts of Bt cotton adoption on farm households in developing countries is growing. Yet, there is still uncertainty about wider implications of this technology for rural development, including effects for landless rural laborers. Bt-related yield advantages may lead to intensified production and higher demand for labor. Building on farm survey data collected in Pakistan and using double-hurdle regression models, we analyze employment effects of Bt cotton adoption. Model estimates show that Bt adoption has increased the demand for hired labor by 55%. Manual harvesting, which is common in Pakistan, is a labor-intensive activity primarily carried out by female laborers. Accordingly, gender disaggregation shows that the employment-generating effects are particularly strong for women, who often belong to the most disadvantaged groups of rural societies. These results suggest that Bt technology can contribute to additional employment income for the poor and to more equitable rural development.
Tourism in Pakistan has been stated as being the tourism industry’s “next big thing”. Pakistan, with its diverse cultures, people and landscapes, has attracted 90 million tourists to the country, almost double to that of a decade ago. Due to threat of terrorism the number of foreigner tourists has gradually declined and the shock of 2013 Nanga Parbat tourist shooting has terribly adversely effected the tourism industry. As of 2016 tourism has begun to recover in Pakistan, albeit gradually.
Recent case law like Zainul Abedin vs. Al Abid Silk Mills17 shows that the courts are more likely to set aside notice entitlements when the employee shows gross misconduct and a blatant disregard for cooperating in the office enquiry following a dismissal. Holidays, maternity leave and whistleblowing policies are governed by contractual agreements between employers and employees. However, precedent shows that maternity leave is an issue employers tend to skip upon, until the matter is pushed in the courts. There is no specific law on whistleblowing, although it would seem that if such a matter were brought in front of a court, appropriate relief would be provided. The following laws govern the area of holidays, gratuity, maternity leave and other rights/entitlements:
For a better understanding of the situation related to female employment in the country, let us place it in a 11-year timeframe (2001-02 to 2012-13), taking into consideration their age-specific activity roles, their educational levels (or lack of them) and their overall employment status. A look at Pakistani females’ distribution in major industrial divisions and occupational groups for the corresponding years would help us get a clearer picture.
Pakistan maintains foreign reserves with State Bank of Pakistan. The currency of the reserves was solely US dollar incurring speculated losses after the dollar prices fell during 2005, forcing the then Governor SBP Ishrat Hussain to step down. In the same year the SBP issued an official statement proclaiming diversification of reserves in currencies including Euro and Yen, withholding ratio of diversification.